Reading: Temporal dioecism, melittophily and anemochory of Wendlandia glabrata (Rubiaceae)


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Temporal dioecism, melittophily and anemochory of Wendlandia glabrata (Rubiaceae)


A J Solomon Raju ,

Andhra University Visakhapatnam India, IN
About A

Environmental Sciences. Working as Professor

My work includes reproductive ecology, conservation biology, biodiversity conservation and management, butterfly ecology, ornithology, entomology and plant-animal interactions

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K Venkata Ramana

Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003, IN
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Wendlandia glabrata is a massive bloomer during February–March. Floral characteristics such as diurnal anthesis, white coloured, odorless, tubular flowers with deep seated sucrose-rich nectar conform to psychophily. Nectar is a source of essential and non-essential amino acids for butterflies, inconsistent foragers due to nectar traces in open flowers. This suggests a breakdown of psychophilous pollination. Honey bees consistently collect only pollen. Flies are also inconsistent nectar foragers. Therefore, W. glabrata with psychophilous pollination syndrome is actually melittophilous, and the flowers exhibit Secondary Pollen Presentation (SPP). The flowers are morphologically hermaphroditic but functionally temporally dioecious which promotes outcrossing. Natural fruit and seed set rates are attributed to pollen robbery by honey bees. Anemochory is effective to dispersal of seeds. In situ seedling establishment rate is low due to habit, seasonal herbaceous vegetation and space limitation. Therefore, we recommend that seedlings be raised in nurseries and transplanted to rebuild populations of W. glabrata.


TAPROBANICA, 2014. Vol. 06, No. 02: pp. 83-89 pls. 4-6.

How to Cite: Solomon Raju, A.J. and Venkata Ramana, K., 2014. Temporal dioecism, melittophily and anemochory of Wendlandia glabrata (Rubiaceae). TAPROBANICA: The Journal of Asian Biodiversity, 6(2), pp.83–89. DOI:
Published on 31 Aug 2014.
Peer Reviewed


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